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Lecture 2. Translatology and Business English
20.02.2012, 10:30
1. R. Jakobson’s theory of language functions. 2. The concept of the audience design in translatology. 3. The theory of cooperative communication (Grice’s maxims). 4. Translator’s options (dichotomies). 5. ‘Invisibility’ of the translator (L. Venuti’s theory). 6. The strategy of ‘softening up’ – refusal and reproach in business communication. 1. R. Jakobson’s theory of language functions. functions of the language – focal points of the speech act. R. Jakobson recognizes 6 of them: The Referential Function corresponds to the factor of Context and describes a situation, object or mental state. The descriptive statements of the referential function can consist of both definite descriptions and deictic words, e.g. "The autumn leaves have all fallen now." The Expressive (alternatively called "emotive" or "affective") Function relates to the Addresser and is best exemplified by interjections and other sound changes that do not alter the denotative meaning of an utterance but do add information about the Addresser's (speaker's) internal state, e.g. "Wow, what a view!" The Conative Function engages the Addressee directly and is best illustrated by vocatives and imperatives, e.g. "Tom! Come inside and eat!" The Poetic Function focuses on "the message for its own sake" and is the operative function in poetry as well as slogans. The Phatic Function is language for the sake of interaction and is therefore associated with the Contact factor. The Phatic Function can be observed in greetings and casual discussions of the weather, particularly with strangers. The Metalingual (alternatively called "metalinguistic" or "reflexive") Function is the use of language (what Jakobson calls "Code") to discuss or describe itself. 2. The concept of the audience design in translatology. audience design – коммуникативный проект: the adaptation of output by text producers to the perceived receiver group. Central to this notion is the extent to which speakers accommodate to their addressees and how speech style is affected. Four potential categories of text receiver have been identified: addressees arе known to the speaker and are directly addressed as ratified participants in the speech event (e.g. University students). Auditors arе both known to the speaker and ratified participants but they are not directly addressed (e.g. listeners to radio). Overhearers are known by the speaker to be present but are neither ratified participants nor directly addressed (e.g. the outsiders to the target audience who may happen to get involved in the process of communication though not directly addressed). Eavesdroppers are those of whose presence the speaker is unaware (address). 3. The theory of cooperative communication (Grice’s maxims). the cooperative principle: the assumption that interlocutors cooperate with each other by observing certain so-called conver­sational maxims. These are: quantity: give as much information as is needed; quality: speak truthfully; relevance: say what is relevant; manner: avoid ambiguity. 4. Translator’s options (dichotomies). Antonyms Abstract expression : concrete expression Actual : generic Ambivalence : univocal Amplification : economy Dilution : concentration Explicitation : implicitation Fixed modulation : free modulation Lexicalization : grammaticalisation Literal translation : oblique translation Loss (entropy) : gain (compensation) Option : servitude Particularization : generalization Reduction : supplimentation Translation : back-translation
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