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At University


The site was designed to offer advice on different aspects of University translatology.
Here you can find information on:

  • Peculiarities of translation at the faculties of foreign languages.

  • The ideology of a professional.

  • International standards of professional competence.

  • Classical works on translation and bibliography of academic papers.

  • The list of quotations thematically arranged.translate

  • Internet resources on translatology.

  •  The format of academic papers.

  • The explanation of the basic terms of translatology: equivalence, modality, the unit of translation, the network of translation problems, transformation, metonymy, vehicular languages, directionality of translation etc.

  •  You can find here examples of translation analysis that can be used in classroom discussions and in your scholarly papers.




17.08.18 Very often a translator is confronted with ambivalence triggered off by the lack of clarifying argument. Apparently, in the example below the author takes it for granted that the reader must understand how Roosevelt had things almost perfectly backwards.

It’s a strain of linguistic exclusionism heard in Theodore Roosevelt’s 1919 address to the American Defense Society, in which he proclaimed that “we have room for but one language here, and that is the English language, for we intend to see that the crucible turns our people out as Americans, of American nationality, and not as dwellers in a polyglot boardinghouse”.

As it turned out, Roosevelt had things almost perfectly backwards.


Признаки лингвистической исключительности можно было заметить в 1919 году в выступлении Теодора Рузвельта перед членами Американского оборонного общества (American Defense Society), в котором он заявил, что «у нас здесь места хватит только для одного языка, этот язык — английский, и мы намерены увидеть, как плавильный котел превращает наших людей в американцев, в представителей американской национальности, а не в жителей пансиона для полиглотов».

Как оказалось, Рузвельт, на самом деле, делал все наоборот.


13.08.18 ‘Complex underwater battlespace’ is an understatement. In his VOA interview, Richardson noted that Americans sailors are increasingly dealing with advanced jamming equipment. “This is an emerging part of our business now,” he said. “Those disruptive technologies…are really going to be decisive in the future fight, and we’ve got to make sure that we’re investing in those as well.”


‘Understatement’ is terminologically misleading: ‘Complex underwater battlespace’ in its semantic relationship to ‘electronic warefare’ must be treated as a  superordinate (a general word) to a hyponym (a specific word). Look up “In Other Words” by Mona Baker.

11.08.18 Sometimes very funny words make it to the mass media. Lulz is one of them:

lulz - the distortion of LOL (laugh out loud)

It's what you do things for.

Why post a giant image of 50 Hitlers?
I did it for the lulz

Seagal has held Russian citizenship since 2016, but is now elevated to a formal role by President Lulz.


С 2016 года Сигал имеет российское гражданство, а теперь «Президент-приколист» повысил его и назначил на официальную должность.


7.08.18 “Synergy” is one of the terms used, or rather abused, for the purpose of setting up the framework for the academic discourse. In fact, it does the opposite: it kills it. An example of the innocent use of ‘synergy’ where the word is just a convenient metaphor:

To illuminate the potential of the synergy of operational combat and deception, one must outline how the operational level is of warfare different from the tactical and strategic levels. All three levels can be discussed based on the following constitutive “principles;” a) the contingent anticipation (i.e., what kind of activity is expected to occur); b) the plan of action and its goals; c) the allocation of resources; d) the orchestration of assets, and, ultimately; e) the social objective. Here, the meaning of social objective refers to the specific desired outcome of a project which requires the synergy among various social agents, and which underlines the complex nature of war.


3.08.18 Out of three evaluative epithets two ease the translator into the target language by their common roots with the English counterparts (the class of words routinely defined in linguistics as internationalisms):

the US president consorts with autocratic foreign leaders who exploit his narcissism and shallowness


американский президент общается с иностранными автократическими лидерами, которые пользуются его нарциссизмом и невежеством

Equivalence between shallowness and невежество seems to be less apparent.

1.08.18  US sides with Russia in WTO national security case against Ukraine

Both countries argue the WTO has no right to weigh in on the case Ukraine brought against the transit restrictions.

By DOUG PALMER 7/30/18, 11:59 AM CET


ВТО не имеет права голоса в иске Украины против ограничений на транзит.


The context leaves no doubt about the meaning of ‘weigh in’, but still the vast resources of possible synonyms will make the translator think twice about the final choice: ‘права голоса.

31.07.18 An example of the translation device of differentiation through concretization:

"I have more in common with Vladimir Putin than I do with Barack Obama," League of the South President Michael Hill wrote in 2014. "One defends a nation—the Rus; the other lords over an anti-White multicultural empire. One upholds an ancient Christian tradition; the other deplores the Christian faith. One acts like a man; the other like a preening capon."



«У меня больше общего с Владимиром Путиным, чем с Бараком Обамой, — написал в 2014 году президент „Лиги Юга″ Майкл Хилл (Michael Hill). — Один защищает страну — Русь; другой верховодит мультикультурной империей, противницей белых. Один из них придерживается древней христианской традиции, а другой осуждает христианскую веру. Один ведет себя как мужчина, другой — красуется, как баба».


Similes like the correspondences in yellow can't help concretizing, but it puts the translator on flimsy grounds for many reasons one of these being the frequency of their use in colloquial speech in English and in Russian in this example.

27.07.18 On July 23 “The American Interest” published David J. Kramer’s article under the ominous headline: “Ukraine Thrown Under the Bus?”

The incompetence and lies of the author of the article account for Trump's contempt for some of the American mass media:

"Very little discussion of all the purposely false and defamatory stories put out this week by the Fake News Media. They are out of control - correct reporting means nothing to them. Major lies written, then forced to be withdrawn after they are exposed...a stain on America!"

Straight from the horse's mouth!   

23.07.18 Football expressions in different cultures are interesting for everyone who loves languages and translation:


21.07.18 With his remarks in Helsinki and at the NATO summit in Brussels, Trump has signaled a historic shift in U.S. foreign policy that may determine the future of this nation and the fate of his presidency. He has rejected the fundamental premises of American foreign policy since the end of the Cold War and blamed our wretched relations with Russia, not on Vladimir Putin, but squarely on the U.S. establishment. In a tweet prior to the meeting, Trump indicted the elites of both parties: “Our relationship with Russia has NEVER been worse thanks to many years of U.S. foolishness and stupidity and now, the Rigged Witch Hunt!


Trump's opinion can't change the US establishment but it belongs to the President of the most powerful nation and due to it is significant in itself.

17.07.18 A desire to learn the lyrics of K-Pop hits like Gangnam Style has boosted the Korean language's popularity explode in countries like the US, Canada, Thailand and Malaysia.A report by the Modern Language Association shows that Korean uptake in US universities rose by almost 14% between 2013 and 2016, while overall language enrolment was in decline.

The latest statistics show 14,000 students are learning Korean in the US, compared to only 163 two decades earlier.


The strange new world!!!

13.07.18 Every human being looks for social approval (“stroking” – «поглаживание» in the received Russian translation - in Eric Berne’s terms). In search of stroking “being  positive” is seen by many people as the best way of achieving the aim. The philosophy of being positive accords with the Bible that calls despondency one of mortal sins. However, the call for “being positive” has a dark side to it, that of cowardice: some people who are positive do it just in search of “stroking” rather than in search of making the world brighter and extending a blessing to humanity by it.

11.07.18 Routine speediness runs through South Korean society and is especially prevalent in the capital. There is even a term for it: ppalli-ppalli culture. Translating to ‘fast’ or ‘hurry’, ppalli is pronounced with a tensed first consonant, as if snapping the vocal apparatus like a rubber band.

The ppalli-ppalli tendency can be seen in South Korea’s world-leading internet speeds, intensive language classes promising near-immediate results and popular speed-dating events. And just as time-conscious are the glitzy wedding halls that host a succession of hour-long ceremonies all weekend.

Ppalli-ppalli is also the watchword of the thousands of food delivery motorcyclists who bend the rules of traffic.


7.07.18 Western nations seem to be drowning in the mire of unnatural "gender neutrality". Some people dislike it and are quite right in their criticism:

But the move was slammed by the school's former pupil Piers Morgan, who said: 'It's disappointing to see one of my old schools getting sucked into this gender neutrality nonsense, which is being driven by a tiny minority of people.'

'Let boys be boys and girls be girls, and stop confusing them in this ridiculous way.'


3.07.18 Think about the question formulated in the headline and the importance for learning cultural differences in the theory of translation:

Why are Russians so stingy with their smiles?

27, 2018 11.42am BST

There is, indeed, truth to the “smiling gap”: In our psychology research, we’ve noticed a striking difference in how often people smile in the United States when compared to Russia. To Americans, it might be easy to assume that this says something about Russians – that they’re an unfriendly, callous people.

But that’s not the case at all. Instead, it’s worth looking at why certain expressions, like smiling, become a key part of social exchanges in some cultures and not others.


Почему русские так скупы на улыбки?

1.07.18 Despite Romansh being one of Switzerland’s four national languages, less than 0.5% percent of Swiss can answer that question – ‘Do you speak Romansh?’ – with a ‘yes’.

Romansh is a Romance language indigenous to Switzerland’s largest canton, Graubünden, located in the south-eastern corner of the country. In the last century, the number of Romansh speakers has fallen 50% to a meagre 60,000. Travellers in the canton can still see Romansh on street signs, or hear it in restaurants when they’re greeted with ‘Allegra!’ (Welcome in). But nearly 40% of Romansh speakers have left the area for better job opportunities in places like Zürich and it’s rare that you will see or hear Romansh outside the canton.