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Главная » Файлы » УМКД: специальность 10. 02. 16 - переводоведение » Методическое обеспечение (hand-outs)

R.Jakobson’s language functions (the main points of the lecture)
01.12.2009, 21:44
Lecture 2
R.Jakobson’s language functions

The scheme of communication

                context
Addresser message addressee
                 contact
                  code  

The function of an utterance depends on its orientation to one or more of these six constitutive factors of the speech event. As a result a parallel scheme may be established: that of the six functions of language, each one denoting an orientation towards a particular factor of the speech event.
   
            Referential
Emotive    Poetic     Conative
              Phatic
            Metalingual

e.g. "Is your father feeling well?”
- depending on the situation may mean at least four things (and realize four functions) :

Situation one.

The speaker is really interested in nothing else but the addressee’s father’s health (referential).

Situation two.

The speaker is trying to set up the most favourable atmosphere for discourse and, asking about the addressee’s father’s health is just anxious to be polite and make himself likeable to the addressee (phatic).

Situation three.

The speaker tries to give a piece of advice to the addressee that instead of idling away his time he must work hard because his father can no longer support him because of illness (conative).

Situation four.

The speaker is being deliberately malicious: he knows that the addressee’s father is very ill. By using irony he tries to inflict pain (poetic).

Stylistics is preoccupied with the study of the poetic function. The empirical criterion of the poetic function of a message is the repetition of sounds, meanings, words, syntactical patterns, and so on.
Relations of equivalence which are in the no-poetic message, in absentia, become in praesentia in the poetic message.
Although there are five basic functions of language we could hardly find verbal messages that would fulfil only one function.
"The diversity lies not in a monopoly of some of these several functions but in a different hierarchircal order of functions. The verbal structure of a message depends primarily on the predominant function.”  
 
   


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